Stained glass can be so beautiful when applied in the window where the light of the sun throughout the glass. The effect of the light from the sun reflecting light from the various glass colors and textures adds a dramatic elegance to your room.

To apply art of glass to a window opening you've 2 options. Purchase or create a glass piece be the exact size with the window opening. Place the art of glass piece above the existing window and secure with molding or brackets. Be sure to thoroughly clean your window prior to installation. To display smaller art glass pieces, hang it above your window using decorative chain or fishing line.

If you don't need a window in which you would like to display your art of glass piece, you may create a faux window. With a press of the mouse button, your art glass will provide light for.

To turn your art glass in to a faux window, you will want to produce a shadow box. To come up with a shadow box you should have wood to the outer frame, sides and back of shadow box. You will also need rope lights or strip lights that could fit into the inner measurements of your respective shadow box.

First look at the length and width on the stained glass piece. Take these measurements through the outer perimeters with the glass. If you wish to use a mitered frame, add the width with the framing stock in your measurements.

Example: Measurements of perimeter of stained glass piece is 21" x 24".

Width of wood for frame is 2".

Using a miter saw or miter box, cut 45 degree angles on each side.

You requires 2 pieces that happen to be 25" and a couple of pieces that happen to be 28" from tip to tip.

Use wood glue and trim head screws you can save your frame. Now you decide to make the box part in the shadow box.

Cut 2 components of 1-1/2" wide wood which are equal on the outer length in the art glass piece plus 1/4" and a couple pieces that happen to be equal on the outer width on the art glass piece plus 1/4" and a couple of times the thickness in the wood.

Using wood glue and brad nails assemble box sides and fix to frame. This leaves the back on the faux window open so as to insert your glass. Place stained glass into shadow box and connect with glass brackets and/or silicone. Then add strip lights or rope lights about the interior from the box just behind the stained glass insert.

To make back with the shadow box, cut an item of plywood or masonite to fit on the assembled box sides and frame. Be sure to produce a hole for that electrical cord. Using wood glue and brad nails, attach to box sides.

An replacement for making a stained glass lighted shadow box will be to hang art glass looking at wall flooded from above by flood bulbs that are mounted behind a soffit. This method necessitates glass artwork being hung away on the wall about 4 - 5". You can make this happen by hanging art glass through the soffit that could allow the lighting for being behind the art glass similar to sun shine coming by having a window. For more information to make stained glass for beginner go to
Buying hybrid automobiles can be a little bit more complicated than what you might think. The complication though, is not on the "buying hybrid auto" part, but how to go about the myriad of hybrid vehicles to choose from. But just like in any other activities, there are some basics needed to be understood.

It is understood though that on this note, we have a basic understanding regarding the nature of hybrid autos, or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). HEV has two energy sources for its engines: electric and combustion. On ordinary situation, like careening down the highway, this car generally runs on one or the other of the source, until the driver needs more power such as faster acceleration.

When this happened, the two engines will operate in unison. HEV cars are low emission, fuel efficient, some of the characteristics worth considering when people are considering buying hybrid cars.

In addition, hybrid vehicles recharge their batteries while being drive. This removes the necessity of plugging the car for electricity. This is unlike pure electric cars, which needed to be plugged in wall sockets, like an ordinary appliance unit.

Hybrid Cars: The Future Vehicle Of Today's Roads

There are also other considerations before the actual buying is considered.

1. Prospective buyers should have some level of understanding with terms or lingo related in buying hybrid cars. According to the California Air Resources Board, Ultra Low-Emission Vehicle is a car with 50 percent cleaner emission, compared with a new 2001 model car.

A Super Ultra Low-Emission Vehicle emits 90 % cleaner than average new 2002 model car. There are zero-emission cars however, are purely electric vehicles, not hybrid cars. But pure electric cars are, at this moment, impractical to produce.

2. Before buying hybrid cars, consumers should also consider their work areas, and home location. Hybrid vehicles are for urban or suburban area. Short distance trips are superb for fuel savings, when hybrid cars are using electric engines at low RPMs. According to experts, driving on a highway or interstate travel won't see much of the expected fuel reduction.

3. The other consideration for consumer before finally buying these cars is the cost. Hybrid automobiles, are admittedly, priced higher than gas-powered counterparts. This is due because of the low production numbers, and the considerably complex mechanical process. But these concerns are readily compensated in the long run, by fuel saving.

Buying hybrid cars at present is encouraged by the Federal State, due to the long term benefits of limiting fuel usage. There several tax deduction for new buyers of hybrid cars. Several cities are offering free parking as an additional incentive for low-emissions vehicles.

The historical road travelled by hybrid cars There are also other beliefs behind these types of vehicles, which make buying hybrid cars for some a serious consideration.

One is the idea that hybrid car is a new phenomenon. In the earl 1900's, American car manufacturers are producing electric, steam, and gasoline cars in equal numbers. By then, buying hybrid vehicle is as normal as buying ordinary car.

Eventually, some engineers figured out that a vehicle with multiple sources of power is possible. In 1905, a certain American engineer named H. Piper filed for the first patent for a vehicle, with engines for gas and electric.

A decade after electric self-starter made gasoline-run cars more feasible. Hybrids and other alternative were almost wiped from the market. The following years from this period was characterized cheap oil, made possible by the almost inexhaustible oil fields of the Arab world. This discouraged auto engineers to continue developing alternative cars.

The oil price hikes of 1970s, coupled with growing awareness of environmental concerns, driven engineers back to their drawing boards for new designs. Extensive and experimentation 1980s produced the hybrids in the U.S. in 2000. The earlier experience of the market on mass-produced hybrid vehicles has given engineers the encouragement to come up with complex systems, making multiple sources of power in a car possible.

In an interview by the Associated Press, Mr. Jim Press, president of Toyota Motor Sales USA, said: "I think everything will be a hybrid, eventually. It will either be a gas hybrid, a diesel hybrid, or a fuel-cell hybrid." From here, it is safe to declare that people buying hybrid cars, are people buying the future vehicles.
Continuing the discussion about servicing hybrid fuel vehicles I've decided to move away from the hybrid operating system for at least one article, and discuss everyone's favorite diagnostic challenge'.the EVAP system! If you are an independent repair facility you're likely more than familiar with the challenges of diagnosing P0441, P0446, or P0456 DTC's (or any of a million other EVAP related codes for that matter). EVAP diagnosis has been a challenge since OBD systems came into prominence. Diagnosing EVAP systems on hybrids can be just as challenging, and sometimes more so.

When diagnosing EVAP systems, its very important to understand the theory behind both EVAP in general, and the particular vehicle you are working on. Evaporative emission systems are created to absorb, or contain, the gasoline fumes created in the fuel tank when the fuel is heated by the sun, or warmed by fuel being returned to the tank by the fuel return system. Many technicians are familiar with the main components found in a basic EVAP system, but in case you are not already familiar here they are: fuel tank, charcoal canister , purge valve, hoses, lines, pressure sensor, and the various other valves used to create pressure or vacuum for testing.

hybrid evap system operation

An EVAP system works by allowing fuel vapors (evaporative emissions) created during refueling, or normal vehicle operation, to move to, and be stored by, the charcoal canister. When engine conditions are conducive for burning some extra fuel vapor, the purge solenoid (or purge valve) is duty cycled by the powertrain control module and the stored fuel vapors are pulled out of the charcoal canister by engine vacuum and made a part of the air/fuel mixture being burned by the engine. There are a number of challenges when it comes to the operation of the EVAP system on a hybrid vehicle however.

The first challenge is that because this system is an emissions system, by law, it must be tested to ensure that it is working properly. These tests conducted by the OBD system must make sure the system is not leaking, that the system flows the proper amount of vapor, and has not been rendered inoperable by the vehicle owner. If any of these conditions prove to exist, the MIL must be illuminated. This is true of all cars, not just hybrids of course.

The second challenge is specific to hybrids. Because the engine on a hybrid vehicle does not operate as often as it might on a conventional vehicle, the opportunities to purge the charcoal canister are far fewer. Yet, as the fuel sits in the tank it continues to be heated by the sunlight shining down on the vehicle as it would in a non-hybrid vehicle.

Since fuel vapor is not allowed to be vented to the atmosphere, it leaves manufacturers with two choices to handle fewer purge opportunities: build a giant charcoal canister to store the vapor until it can be burned, or keep the fuel from evaporating. Each manufacturer has chosen to handle the problem in a different way (of course!). Some hybrid vehicles like the Prius, have a bladder inside the tank that is designed to shrink around the fuel load. This will limit the amount of evaporative emissions from any given fuel load since evaporation rates are a product of exposed surface area.

Other manufacturers have chosen to trap fuel vapors in the fuel tank, and not allow them to be delivered to the charcoal canister unless the engine is ready to purge the canister, or the customer wishes to add fuel to the tank. Yet other manufacturers have chosen to utilize a conventional emissions system as their vehicles tend to run the engine more often than other hybrids might (think mild hybrid).

Each system creates unique diagnostic and operational challenges. Let's discuss the challenges associated with the Prius bladder tank system first. The Prius tank contains a rubber-like bladder inside a conventional looking plastic tank. This bladder is designed to shrink upon fuel removal, and expand upon fuel filling. Many Prius customers, especially during the winter months, complain about an inability to fill the fuel tank. Although not directly related to an EVAP problem, let's first address this concern.

There are a number of factors involved in how much fuel can be put in the tank at any given time. Firstly, the bladder material must be able to stretch when adding fuel. Obviously the ambient temperature at the time of fill up will affect the ability of the bladder to stretch. Secondly the system is designed to use the positive pressure created when adding fuel to help expand the bladder. If the customer doesn't fit the fuel fill nozzle tightly to the vehicle, the reduced fill pressure will not allow the bladder to fill completely. The fact that the fuel tank only holds 11 gallons of fuel to begin with means that often times, during colder winter months especially, you'll be lucky to squeeze 7 or 8 gallons of fuel into these tanks.

You may have considered the fact that this system also makes measuring what fuel is left in the tank a significant challenge. The vehicle uses a calculation, instead of a direct measurement, to determine how much fuel is present. This calculation includes level sensing, fuel float level (in a special chamber of the tank), ambient temperature, and how much fuel had been delivered to the engine since the last fill up, among other inputs. All of this means that customers who only add a couple gallons at a time to their vehicles will find themselves fooling the system into thinking no fuel has been added. There may actually be more fuel in the tank than the gauge reports'or sometimes the opposite case'less fuel in the tank than the gauge reports! In a nutshell, Prius owners must fill the tank when it reads low, and should be happy with fitting 7 to 9 gallons of fuel in the tank on a fill-up! I'll discuss the TSB's associated with the fuel level system in a future article.

Now, back to the EVAP system. The Prius EVAP system is fitted with a charcoal canister, EVAP purge valve (to vent vapors from canister to engine), vent valve (to allow atmospheric pressure into the tank for purging), a pressure sensor, and vapor switching valve. The vapor switching valve is used to let the system switch between pulling vapors from the canister, or pulling vapors from the space between the bladder and the tank. Under bladder leak detection conditions, the vapor switching valve allows any vapor in the tank surrounding the bladder to be expelled through the purge valve. Should the O2 sensors see any excess fuel being burned during this phase, the system assumes a leak in the bladder and will set a DTC.

During EVAP system leak detection, a vacuum is drawn on the fuel tank and EVAP system by opening the purge valve with the canister vent valve closed. Using the pressure sensor, the system monitors how long it takes for the vacuum to be drawn as well as for the fuel system pressure to increase. Too long an amount of time to pull a vacuum, or too fast of a rise in pressure after vacuum has been drawn and the system assumes a leak. The rate of the pressure rise will dictate whether a small leak or gross leak is detected. Possibilities for leaks can include the canister vent valve not closing properly, the purge valve not fully seating in the off position, a leak in the bladder, or the possibility of a leak anywhere along any component or line!

In the next article we'll discuss how you, the technician, can go about diagnosing an EVAP system problem when you have a MIL 'on' condition. In the meantime, use the link below to sign up and follow this column! As always, feel free to contact me with questions, concerns, or observations. I can be reached through.[]